Users and other figures can become part of the design process as expert of their experience, but in order to take on this role they must be given appropriate tools for expressing themselves.

The designers should provide ways for people to engage with each other as well as instruments to communicate, be creative, share insights and envision their own ideas. The co-design activities can support different levels of participation, from situation in which the external figures are involved just in specific moments to situations in which they take part to the entire process, building up the service together with the designers.

(2001) Elizabeth B.-S. Sanders, Colin T. William, "Harnessing People’s Creativity: Ideation and Expression through Visual Communication", in Focus Groups: Supporting Effective Product
Development, Langford J and McDonagh-Philip D, Taylor and Francis

(2004) P. Kristensson, A. Gusyafsson, T. Archer, "Harnessing the Creative Potential Among Users", in Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21.

(2008) Elizabeth B.-N. Sander, Pieter Jan Stappers, Co-creation and the New Landscape of Design, article in CoDesign, Taylor&Francis.

(2008) Nico MacDonald, Joe Haepy, Lynne Maher, Austin Williams, Can Good Design Be Co-created?, Design Council, paper.

The world the service belongs to. The context is the specific frame in which the service takes place. Exploring and defining the context means setting the project boundaries in terms of limits but also opportunities.

(2004) Daniela Sangiorgi, Il Design dei Servizi Come Design dei Sistemi di Attività: la Teoria dell’Attività Applicata alla Progettazione dei Servizi, tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Disegno Industriale, tutor Giuliano Simonelli, relatore Elena Pacenti, co-relatore Stefano Maffei,
Politecnico di Milano

Represent the service idea using techniques that illustrate all the components of the service, including physical elements, interaction modalities, logical links and temporal sequences.
Envisioning is the process of imagining what might be, of previewing the service solution, of making its future features more tangible by translating them in visual interpretations or representations. The tools that are used for envisioning allow people to show, externalize and share what is in their minds: making the ideas visible in order to understand and explain them better.
The hardest think concerning envisioning during a process of service design is that there is often the need to communicate both the inner mechanism of the process and the immaterial components of the experience (which are per se difficult to represent) to several actors who are not supposed to be familiar with any technical language or representation technique. In this sense the use and the development of adequate visual tools is a great opportunity but also a (sfida) for designers.

(2003) Alan Topolion, Envisioning, visualization and dynamic integration in design, Alto Design Management, KISD, Cologne
(2006) Nicola Morelli, New Representation Techniques for Designing in a Systemic Perspective, Engineerign and product design education conference, Salzborg.

Activities that could have educational or social or entertaining aim. The game is based on the objective that the participants have to reach through the game itself and on a set of rules determining what players can or cannot do during the game.
(2006) Eva Brandt, Designing Exploratory Design Games: a Framework for Participation in Participatory Design?, Ninth Conference on Participatory design, paper

Diagrams that exhibit relationships, often functional, between two or more items having coordinates determined by their relationships too.

Graphs are visual structures made by simple items and links between them. The links can be oriented -when the direction is expressed- or not oriented.

(2002) Edwuard R. Tufte, Envisioning Information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, Connecticut. (2003) Edwuard R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, Connecticut.
(2005) Jonathan Kendler, Effective Communication Through Infographics, Wilkund Research and Design, paper.
(2006) Massimo Botta, Design dell'Informazione. Tassonomie per la Progettazione di Sistemi Grafici Autonomatici, Valentina Trentini Editore, Trento.

Transforming the designed solution into a working service.

The service has to be defined step by step and communicated in order to be built effectively and to become ready for the delivery.

(2007) Great Britain, Office of Government Commerce, Vernon Llyod, Colin Rudd, Sharon Taylor, Service design, edited by The Stationery Office, London. (1996) Rohit Ramaswamy, Design and Management of Service Processes, Addison Wesley, Massachussets, USA.

The response experience in which both the user and the organization are engaged in a mutually affecting experience. Defining the interaction modalities means identify the touchpoints and their generic features and then detail each choice in terms of visual interface, devices involved, staff behaviours and activities, architecture of the information and of the space.

(1991) J. Carroll, Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface, Cambridge University Press.
(1998) Pacenti, Elena, Il Progetto dell’Interazione nei Servizi. Un Contributo al Tema della Progettazione dei Servizi, tesi di dottorato
di ricerca in Disegno Industriale, tutor Ezio Manzini, contro-tutor Giovanni Anceschi, Politecnico di Milano.
(2004) Daniela Sangiorgi, Il Design dei Servizi Come Design dei Sistemi di Attività: la Teoria dell’Attività Applicata alla Progettazione dei Servizi, tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Disegno Industriale, tutor Giuliano Simonelli, relatore Elena Pacenti, co-relatore Stefano Maffei,
Politecnico di Milano

Objects that represent other objects. In the design practise, models are preliminary works or constructions that serves as plans from which the final service is to be made. Such a work or construction is mainly used to testing and perfecting the final solution.
(2006) Bill Moggridge, Designing Interactions, MIT Press, Cambridge

The narrative is a collection of events that tells a story, which may be true or not, placed in particular order and recounted through either telling, representing or writing. A narrative has a sequence in which the events are told and has a narrator telling the story.
(1992) Giovanni Anceschi, L'Oggetto della Raffigurazione, Etas Libri, Milano

Both the tangible and tacit advantages the user gets from the service. Defining the offering means identify the macro-categories of performances the service will provide and deepen one by one each single offering.

(2004) Daniela Sangiorgi, Il Design dei Servizi Come Design dei Sistemi di Attività: la Teoria dell’Attività Applicata alla Progettazione dei Servizi, tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Disegno Industriale, tutor Giuliano Simonelli, relatore Elena Pacenti, co-relatore Stefano Maffei,
Politecnico di Milano

The expert figures whose knowledge is required for the development of the service idea. The general aptitude is to engage a broad spectrum of professionals from the very beginning: somebody from marketing, some others from branding, analytics, technology, organizational training and so on, covering the different fields involved in the service project (business, technology and social sciences).
(2008) Lucy Kimbell, Victor P. Seidel, Designing for Services - Multidisciplinary Perspectives:
Proceedings from the Exploratory Project on Designing
for Services in Science and Technology-based Enterprises,
Saïd Business School, University of Oxford.

People involved in the final delivery of the service. The service staff include the operators working in the front stage, where direct interactions with users happen, and the operators working in the back stage producing information and “stuff” needed by the front stage.
(1992) M.J. Bitner, Servicescapes: "The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customer and Employees", in Journal of Marketing 55.
(2007) Yves Cinotti, Proposition d’une Typologie des
Rencontres de Service, in “La relation client
dans les activitiés de service”, 2ème Journée du
Marketing IRIS, Lyon, 15 marzo 2007.

Persons, groups or organizations that have direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization’s actions, objectives and policies (Business Dictionary, 2007). A sample list of stakeholders may include one or more of the following: employees, communities, shareholders, investors, government, suppliers, labour unions, government regulatory agencies, industry trade group, professional associates, competitors, public communities , local communities.
The concept of stakeholder was first used in 1963 during an internal memorandum at th Stanford Research institute. It first defined stakeholders as “those groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist”. More recently a quite different meaning has become widely used in management and business contexts: a stakeholder is a person that has a legitimate interest in a project or entity.

(2000) Anne M. Smith, Moira Fishbacher, "Stakeholder involvement in the new service design process",in Journal of Financial Services Marketing, Volume 5, Number 1.

The actors involved in the service creation, development and delivery, with their roles and resources. Describing the system means identify the main figures involved, deepen the actors features and the existing relations between them, specify their activities and aims in taking part into the service process.

(2004) Daniela Sangiorgi, Il Design dei Servizi Come Design dei Sistemi di Attività: la Teoria dell’Attività Applicata alla Progettazione dei Servizi, tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Disegno Industriale, tutor Giuliano Simonelli, relatore Elena Pacenti, co-relatore Stefano Maffei,
Politecnico di Milano

Experience some aspects of the service idea with customers, stakeholders or professionals in order to improve the solutions before they are realized.

Before getting to the costly development of a new or improved service, low fidelity models are often used to prototype and test the ideas quickly and cheaply. The tools used for service prototyping can go in the direction of mainly evocative simulations but also of very realistic descriptions: from rudimentary acted-out scenarios with hand-sketched screens or improvised props to detailed mock-ups of the system, the environment and the staff.
Mark Jones -from IDEO- has recently explained in an interview with Rachel Hinman –from Adaptive Path- how prototyping could support a service design process as it happens in the traditional product design: “If you use an analogy from the product world, a prototype can just be a foam block to gauge the size of a product with no buttons on it or anything else. A rough prototype answers a question. An early prototype for a service may be a group of people role-playing a new service without any technological infrastructure. Or it might be something in the middle, where you’re designing touch points for how a new service might look. Until you start an early pilot, you may not have real data behind a technological infrastructure. You may not have a real protocol but you can set up a simulated environment in a pilot situation.”

(2007) Rachel Hinman in Conversation with Mark Jones, IDEO About Service Design
http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives
(2007) S. Holmlid, S. Evenson, "Prototyping and Enacting Services: Lessons Learned from Human-Centered Methods", in Proceedings from the 10th Quality in Services conference, QUIS 10, Orlando.
(2007) Great Britain, Office of Government Commerce, Vernon Llyod, Colin Rudd, Sharon Taylor, Service design, edited by The Stationery Office, London.
(2007) Sperling, C.P., Simons, L.P.A., Bouwman W.A.G.A., Multi-Channel Service Concept Design and Prototyping, in Management of eBusiness, Eighth World Congress, Hamilton, Canada.

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People making use of a thing. Any person, organization or system which uses a service provided by others is a user.

(2002) S. Holmlid, Adapting Users: Towards a Theory of Use Quality, Linkoping Studies in Science and Technology Dissertation N° 765, Linkopings Universitet, Sweden. (2006) E.B.-N. Sanders, "Design Serving People" in E. Salmi, L. Anusionwu, Cumulus Working Papers, Univesity of Art and Design, Helsinki.

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